The Epsilon detonated a mine laid on Jan 22 1917 by German submarine UC-17. On Voyage from Buenos Ayres to Amsterdam with a cargo maize. The Epsilon wreck is very broken, it was dynamited after being designated a hazard to shipping. At sometime during the 1980’s, some local divers found a large parachute mine, they persuaded the bomb squad to move the UXB to the Epsilon to help ‘open her up’. It did more than open her up.
What remains of the wreck are 3 boilers, 2 large and one smaller boiler and lots of twisted metal. If you head in a south west direction, away from the boilers, you head towards the stern. The stern is well broken with lots of twisted metal, with some plates standing a few metres above the sea bed. The large steering quadrant is visible amongst the broken wreckage. With resident conger eels, wrasse and pollack cruising around, it is quite a nice dive.
Shotline on the Boilers – The shotline will be dropped close to the boilers. Being the centre of the wreck, you can swim in a South Westerly direction towards the stern or North East towards the bow. The wreck is very broken but you can follow parts of the wreck in either direction. The boilers themselves are quite interesting, with several resident Conger Eels.
Shotline on the Stern – The shotline will be dropped by the highest part of the stern, it is only a couple of metres high but usually has a school of Bib around it. The area is quite flat but parts of the wreck are discernible, like the steering quadrant and the propellor. From the stern head North East for the boilers, then North East again for the Bow.
DSMBs to be deployed before leaving the sea bed, unless it has been pre-arranged to leave the shot line in.
Cornwall has attractions to suit most people, one that suits a wide range of people, is the Eden Project.
The site consists of two large biomes situated at the bottom of a disused quarry, the whole site including the outside gardens, covers 13 hectares. The Rainforest and Mediterranean biomes are basically climate controlled massive greenhouses. Featuring plants and features of their relative areas, they are interesting to even the least of green fingered people. It is hard to explain the size and range of things to do at Eden, in the winter there is ice skating, in the summer they have live music. In 2019, Kylie Minogue is due to appear. In the past they have had acts like Lily Allen, Mark Ronson, Motorhead and the Stranglers, to name a few.
If you want to learn more, look at their website – https://www.edenproject.com/
When you are there, wandering around, you may even get a glimpse of out boat, Stingray, in one of the project films they are showing.
We have been asked to join the WAOH project as a stakeholder. Whilst the project is open to all, creating a sustainable scuba diving route around the Atlantic coast of Europe, is the main aim.
Taken from the Wildsea.eu website:
The WILDSEA Atlantic Heritage Route is a discovery journey along the best diving destinations in Europe‘s Atlantic coastline. The Route celebrates the unique natural and cultural heritage of European coastal territories washed by the Atlantic Ocean, discovering a rich mosaic of adventures, tastes and amazing travel experiences.
The Route is currently under development through a broad stakeholder consultation process in Portugal, Spain, Ireland and the UK. In 2019 we will be delighting you with an amazing selection of diving adventures and other marine ecotourism and travel opportunities along the Route. Until then, get acquainted with the Route’s fantastic landmark destinations!
With our environmental credentials, we have been awarded 5* as a service provider. We are also attending the conference of stakeholders in Portugal, during November 2018.
If you want to know more about ecotourism, there is a good explanation on the Wildsea website – https://www.wildsea.eu/blog-en/what-is-ecotourism-and-why-is-so-important.html
We have just finished filming for our next TV appearance, which will be shown on the next series of BBC1 SW’s Inside Out program. The series starts in September 2018.
We have managed to record most of our appearances, then uploaded them to You-Tube. Here are some of them:
- President Wreck BBC1 National News at 6
- Why does this diver keep finding bombs, Forces TV
- Animals rescued from ghost fishing gear in Cornwall, BBC News
- Falmouth U-Boats BBC Spotlight
- Schiedam BBC Spotlight
- Darlwyne BBC Inside Out
- Darlwyne BBC Spotlight
- The Net BBC One Show
|The U-BOAT Coast|
Appeared in DIVER July 2018
|President’s guns found off Cornwall |
2 June 2018
|2018-06-02 12:25:00||Diving News|
|Is this the last glimpse of HMS Anson?|
27 May 2018
|2018-05-27 11:37:16||Diving News|
|NOW YOU SEE IT…|
Appeared in DIVER February 2018
|2018-02-08 16:50:29||UK Diving|
|Diver finds WW2 mine off Cornwall|
5 December 2017
|2017-12-05 10:27:39||Diving News|
|Divers find 100m ghost net in Cornwall|
28 June 2017
|2017-06-28 09:46:42||Diving News|
|Divers find 17th-century wreck at Poldark site|
14 December 2016
|2016-12-14 11:58:31||Diving News|
|DARLWYNE – the forgotten tragedy of 1966 |
Appeared in DIVER November 2016
|Divers may have solved 50-year Darlwyne mystery|
5 August 2016
|2016-08-04 17:42:22||Diving News|
|Large jellyfish greet divers|
21 May 2014
|2015-03-31 22:04:38||Diving News|
|Baby lobsters released|
5 April 2014
|2015-03-31 22:04:36||Diving News|
After our exciting dive on the President wreck, David Gibbins wrote a press release as follows:
29 May 2018 – Cornwall, UK
Divers off Cornwall have discovered cannons and an anchor thought to be from one of the richest ships ever to wreck against these shores. In 1684 the English East Indiaman the President came to grief against Loe Bar, carrying down most of her crew as well as a ‘very rich lading, modestly judged of no less than a hundred thousand pounds … with much treasure of pearl, and diamonds.’ Her loss was so great that she was even marked on the map of Cornwall produced at this period by the famous Dutch cartographer Van Keulen. The rediscovery of the site thought to be this wreck opens up a whole new chapter in the maritime history of Cornwall, linking these shores to a time when huge fortunes were made and lost in the ‘Enterprise of the Indies.’
David Gibbins, who heads the organisation Cornwall Maritime Archaeology along with Mark Milburn, takes up the story. ‘The site was first reported by divers twenty years ago and was designated under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973. Mark and I are licensed by Historic England to monitor the wreck, but for many years it has been covered by sand. The recent period of calm weather has allowed us to dive off Loe Bar for the first time in months. We were thrilled to see seven cannon and an anchor, and quickly realised that we were looking at a new part of the site that had never before been recorded. You might think that all the important wreck artefacts off this coast have been found by now, but that is not the case. With every storm the sand can shift to reveal new treasures. It was incredibly exciting to see something that nobody has seen before.’
The President has a remarkably detailed backstory because a pamphlet was published that year based on the accounts of the survivors: ‘A full ACCOUNT Of the late Ship-wreck of the Ship called The PRESIDENT: Which was cast away in Montz-Bay in Cornwal On the 4th of February last, As it was deliver’d to HIS MAJESTY, (both in Writing and Discourse) By William Smith and John Harshfield, the only Persons that escaped in the said Wreck.’ It tells of a desperate sea battle off the Malabar Coast of India with six pirate ships, in which a roundshot from the President penetrated the powder magazine of one of the pirate vessels and blew it up. Gibbins continued: ‘Cannons are common finds on the wrecks of merchant ships from the Age of Sail, a time when most ships were armed. But its very unusual to know that guns on a merchantmen were actually used, especially in such a colourful action and on the very voyage on which the ship was wrecked. It gives a special excitement to seeing these guns for the first time underwater.’
Further diving is planned at the site. To follow the team’s progress and see more photos and video, go to Facebook/CornwallMaritimeArchaeology.
The story was sent out to various news agencies, several published it as it was. Some added a little extra, the David added some details for the Cornwall live version.
On June 9, 2018, I received was contacted by SWNS. They were asking for more details and more photographs, I gave them what they asked for. It soon appeared on the Daily Mail website, followed by the Daily Star and The Sun. The story started spreading, by the end of June 10, it was on 34 web sites.
Daily Mail story
June 11, I received a call from a BBC reporter. Would I be interested in doing a piece for the BBC News? Of course. We met on Loe Bar with the reporter and his cameraman, they asked me some questions about the wreck and the dive, filming me as we chatted. While I was there, I received a call from Radio 5live, they wanted a live telephone interview at 6:25pm. I said that would be fine. Turned out to be the same time as the most likely spot for my piece on the BBC news. I was the told that BBC Radio 4 wanted a piece for their news, which they would edit from the interview with BBC TV News. They used the R4 piece on Radio 2 news as well.
This was generating a lot of interest. Fox news rang asking for more details, not sure if it was for on-line use only or for a TV piece.
The combined BBC pieces had an estimated audience in excess of 15 million, plus now there were 103 web pages featuring the original press release, as well as being on Fox.
Since the sailing vessel, the Hera, sank in 1914, she has undergone a lot of changes.
Over the last eight years we have dived it many times, talked to people from around the area including retired divers and collected as much information about the wreck as possible. Culminating in the 100 year anniversary commemoration services at St Symphonian’s Church at Veryan, Cornwall.
Our main goal was to find out why it ended up in two separate parts, lying parallel, with the bow and stern alongside each other about 12m apart.
The Hera was a four masted steel barque. It was rigged with royal sails above double top and single topgallant sails. Weighing in at 1,994 tons and measuring 276x41x23 ft, it was a large vessel.
Built in 1886 by J.C. Tecklenborg, yard no. 58, it was originally named the ‘Richard Wagner’. A German document written in 1982 states that it was built completely on spec, it was the first iron ship the yard had built and their first tall ship. It took three years to sell and in the meantime was used by Franz Tecklenborg’s company, the yard owner’s brother’s company. It made several trips, bringing grain back from San Francisco.
It was sold to Rhederi Aktien Gesellschaft of Hamburg in 1889. On January 30th 1914, The Hera was ninety one days out of Pisagua, Chile. En route to Falmouth with a cargo of nitrate worth 30,000 British pounds, a very valuable cargo at the time.
The winds were strong from the south west, Captain Lorenz was unsure of their position. He sailed slowly, looking for either the Lizard or St Anthony’s light. As dusk fell and the conditions worsened, there was still no sign of any light. Just before midnight, land was sighted, Captain Lorenz ordered the ship be put about. In the stormy conditions that night, the ship was slow to respond. She hit the Whelps, on the south side of Gull Rock, in the south westerly gale just before midnight on January 30th January 1914. Taking on water, she then drifted around Gull Rock and eventually sank in the early hours of February 1st. When it sank in 15m of water, only her masts and rigging remained above water, the crew were clinging to the wet rigging and ropes for their lives.
Eight men clung to the rigging in total, but, as the tide rose three were gradually covered by the icy water. With one whistle between them, they passed it along and blew in turn, until the Falmouth lifeboat, guided by the whistle rescued the five survivors.
The lifeboat ‘Bob Newton’ was set the task of recovering the survivors. The Bob Newton was towed from Falmouth by the tug ‘Perran’, to about a mile offshore (possibly Carne Beach). It then made it’s way between Nare Head and Gull Rock to speak to the coastguard on the shoreline.
The lifeboat’s coxswain, Samuel Hingston, described the rescue:
“On the way we encountered huge seas. When about a mile offshore we slipped the Perran and and went in between the Gull Rock and Nare Head and spoke to the coastguards, who were on the rocks. From what we could ascertain from them there was a vessel near the shore, but on the outside of us. All at once I heard a whistle blowing. We immediately got our anchor up and went away in the direction of the sound. Then we saw a speck on our lee bow and later we made out five men hanging on a spar. We experienced considerable difficulty in rescuing the men because of the heavy seas. We were afraid of crushing them against the spar. Our bowman, William Leuty, badly crushed his finger in the rescue.”
The RNLI described the rescue of the five men in gale force conditions as “a commendable rescue.”
The survivors were discovered clinging to the jigger-mast which had broken, and which was held fast by the backstays and which protruded above the water. When rescued the men were half dead with cold, exposure and exhaustion having been clinging to the mast for between five and six hours and buffeted by tide and seas. Three others of the crew, who had clutched at the mast for safety, were forced to leave go their hold of it and perished, whilst the first mate, who was lashed to the mast, succumbed before help arrived.
Only five of the twenty four crew survived, fifteen of the deceased were buried in the churchyard at St Symphonian’s Church, Veryan. The grave interred the first twelve bodies that were recovered and is thought to be the longest grave in the country, as they were buried head to toe. Three more bodies were found and buried alongside their crew mates. The captains body was returned to Germany but three bodies were never found. Over six hundred people were reported to have attended the funeral by the vicar, Canon Kempe, who was accompanied by other clergy and Chaplain J.C. Badger (Falmouth).
One of the survivors, Joseph Cauchi, lived to the age of 84, passing away in 1979 at his home in Malta. His story can be found here – http://www.submerged.co.uk/joseph-cauchi-a-survivor-from-the-hera.php
The Hera was sold at auction to the Harris Brothers of Falmouth for £205. Much of her gear was salvaged.
It was reported in ‘The Echo’ of July 1914: ‘a Trinity House ship was noticed near Gull Rock…..an explosion was heard….afterwards huge spars and logs of wood were brought ashore. It is assumed that ….the ‘Hera’ has be blown up on account of her danger to navigation more especially to the fishing and crabbing boats’.
This would explain why she now lies in two major parallel sections, with the stern and bow almost alongside with the ships masts between them.
In 1959 a group of divers explored the Hera, they were taken to the wreck by the fishing boat of Les Johns and William Arthur Blamey. Among items recovered were some of the ship’s portholes.
In 1970, a group of divers from RAF St Mawgan sub aqua club began to investigate the wreck. Photographs were taken and the divers brought up a number of artefacts including links of chain, pulley blocks and lumps of steam coal stamped ‘Cardiff’.
It is also reported that another local club, whilst trying to access the coal bricks, blew the plating off of the bow. Whether this caused the bow to point upwards is unknown, nowadays this is the shallowest part of the wreck.On January 21st, 2006 I dived the Hera for the first time. With little prior knowledge of the wreck, I wrote this after my first dive on her:
I obviously really enjoyed it. I can now spot the obvious errors, that, a first glimpse could easily have been made.
I soon went back and wrote this:
“It had been about four months since I last dived the Hera and I was happy about diving it again so soon. This time I decided to take my video camera as well as the digital still camera. It’s fun jumping in with two cameras. The last time I dived the Hera I swam through part of the wreck near the bow. This time I wanted to see if it made good viewing. I also wanted to get some better close up shots of the jewel and plumose anemones that cover the ‘A’ frame. We entered the water at slack on low tide. Shaun had dropped the shot right on the ‘A’ frame, the most distinctive part of the wreck standing about 5m proud of the 15m deep sea floor. I started off with a few shots of the anemones on the ‘A’ frame then set off with my video camera to do the swim through the wreck. There are some huge Pollack around the ‘A’ frame and large Ballan Wrasse are found all over the wreck, including one unfortunate individual that looked like it had got too close to a boat propeller. I made my way to the swimthrough and entered the larger opening. Inside there were a few Starfish and lots of small Pollack, Bib and Whiting, as well as the odd Dead Man’s Finger. There is nothing exciting inside and the exit is a little tight. I swam around outside looking at the sea bed with its smattering of tube worms before I decided on a return trip through the wreck. At any point within the swimthrough you do get to see patches of light through holes or under the edge where the wreck meets the sea bed. Just after I exited the wreck I came across two other divers, so I showed them the entrance to the swimthrough, then swam back around in the opposite direction. All over the wreck there is a lot of fish life; Ballan or Cuckoo Wrasse, Pollack and Whiting. As I reached the ‘A’ frame again I got the still camera out and started to get some photos of the abundant anemones that cover it; Jewel Anemones in red, orange, yellow and green as well as orange, white and green Plumose Anemones. A photographers heaven. As I neared the end of my dive I saw a Tompot Blenny watching me, so I got a shot of him too. After 75 minutes of a very enjoyable and successful dive I surfaced with a big smile.”
I still hadn’t realised that the ‘A’ frame was indeed the remains of the bow. No one else on board knew either. I dived the Hera almost every month when the weather allowed but didn’t always write about it.
My next written piece was on 29th July 2007.
That was the first time I had found the stern section of the wreck, I could feel my fascination increasing. This was my fourth dive of the year on the Hera.
My next written account was several months later on a Friday evening dive.
There were dives where I took the camera and never wrote about it, and, there were times I just dived it for fun. It was around this time that I had decided to find out as much as possible about the Hera. I wanted to collate as much information about the Hera as possible, these pages are the result.
Although the Hera struck the Whelps on January 30th, it didn’t sink instantly, so technically it sank on February 1st 1914.
With the centenary approaching we were wondering what we could do to commemorate the sinking of the Hera. Here were two of our projects:
On Saturday November 30th, we took out nine divers and 1,200 lobsters, on our RHIB Stingray, to the Hera wreck.
During the week, we had received a phone call from the National Lobster Hatchery, asking if we were diving at the weekend. We had already arranged to dive the Hera followed by the Stanwood wreck on the Saturday, and, we already had a few booked on the boat. After describing the sea bed substrate around the Hera, to Ben at the Hatchery, he said it sounded ideal. The sea bed around the Hera is a mixture of Maerl (dead and alive), coarse sand and shells, giving the juvenile lobsters plenty of places to bury and hide. Most of the divers were locals and some had even previously released the baby lobsters on our boat before. Two divers had come down from Portsmouth and loved the idea of helping with the release. Eight divers each took down one tray, containing roughly one hundred and fifty 25mm long lobsters. Several had cameras, one diver just took their camera to film some of the releases.
We had also planned to dive the Hera on February 1st, 100 years to the day of it’s sinking. Whilst talking about it and making preparations, I was contacted by Father Doug Robbins. Father Robbins was after any photos or footage we had of the Hera, it was for a commemorative weekend over the 1st and 2nd of February. After several emails and many photos and links to videos on You-Tube had been sent, I asked if they wanted a plaque or wreath laying on the Hera on our dive. We agreed on a plaque, which we collected from Father Robbins at the church.
The weather on February 1st wasn’t suitable to go to sea, so we had to delay our trip. With the winter storms of 2013/2014, it was 7 weeks before the conditions were suitable to dive the Hera.
On 1 February 1914, the sailing barque ‘Hera’ foundered and sank near Nare Head. To commemorate the event, divers attached a plaque to the wreck, in memoriam to the 19 souls who lost their lives. It had originally been arranged to be placed on the wreck on 1 February of this year, the 100th Anniversary of the sinking. Mark Milburn, of Atlantic Scuba, who arranged the event with Father Doug Robins of Veryan Parish, said that the weather had been so unfavourable that they had been forced to bide their time.
Mr Milburn said: “We had arranged to dive the wreck on the 100th anniversary of the sinking, when many dive
boats were to be on site to pay their respects. The weather has been so bad, we have had to wait six weeks to get on site.””With the recent storms it is easy to see why a sailing ship would have come to grief all those years ago.”
We will continue to update our site if we find any more information or if there is any changes to the wreck.
The winter storms of 2017/2018 have caused some damage to the Hera. One of the capstans has fallen over and around 30cm of sand has been removed. There is quite a lot of fresh rust, where plates have become exposed or moved.
Last year, we took part in the Falmouth Spring Festival Clean event. Organised by Falmouth BID and Falmouth Bay Residents association, we were contacted to help. I combined with Fathoms Free, they organised the beach cleans, I organised the divers for the underwater section. We are doing the same event this year, 2018, with Fathoms Free.
Other events past and present
We did our 1st underwater litter pick in 2011 at Swanpool Beach in Falmouth. We then continued and did a clean from every beach and dive site from Durgan to Pendennis Headland. The underwater clean at Gyllyngvase attracted the media, we got it on BBC national news and BBC News 24 worldwide. Project Aware rang me to thank me for mentioning them on TV, they had been trying for years to get the issue of marine litter on TV without success. I think this was the event that inspired Rob to set up ‘Dive Against Debris’, later renamed to Fathoms Free. We continued doing the underwater litter picks, nowadays we don’t do organised cleans, all our divers do it automatically on shore and boat dives. My regular divers sometimes compete for who can collect the most. I even teach underwater litter picking in the SDI Open Water course, I have informed the Vice President of SDI about this addition. We also did a combined event with Neil Hembrow (Beach Care, part of Keep Britain Tidy) and Penryn Campus at Gylly with 17 divers taking part, collecting litter from underwater and the surface.
We have removed many nets, pieces of nets and old pots. October 2015 saw us remove the biggest from the Manacles, a marine conservation area – http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p036yq7q – which appeared on the BBC One Show. We did another big net in 2017 – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/uk-england-cornwall-40442092/animals-rescued-from-ghost-fishing-gear-in-cornwall – this one only appeared on BBC Online. We continue removing ghost gear and nets. During 2017 I came up with the idea of Ghost Gear Thursdays. Our boat went out every Thursday with FreediveUK training freedivers. When the boat was only half full, 4 divers came aboard (including me) and we sited the boat above a wreck, we then took turn removing ghost fishing gear. We did this 8 or more times during the summer, it will continue this summer. The Mylor fishermen tell us when they lose gear, we either recover it or re-buoy it for them, it stops it ghost fishing.
We have taken part in a few combined events with Fathoms Free and have more planned, our boat is listed on their MMO license for removing ghost gear and sea litter.
We have released juvenile lobsters for the National Lobster Hatchery as well, in excess of 25,000 around Falmouth so far.
On another note. For the last 3 or 4 years, I have been trying to get permission to do a small trial of Seagrass reseeding. The system I wanted to trial, has proved successful worldwide and I have the backing of the World Seagrass Organisation. The VP of the WSO, Dr Richard Unsworth, will even come and join in. After many emails going back and forth, Natural England came up with their demands. A range of studies, that if I did in conjunction with a degree course would probably earn me a decent degree. Dr Unsworth got involved and told them they were being ridiculous, asking a volunteer group to undertake such tasks. Especially for such a small project. The idea was to prove it works and encourage dive clubs and groups country wide to do a similar project, we could reseed acres of lost beds but I have almost lost interest.
This could work in every country. It would generate a lot of programs around the world, for people to watch. This could be done in several ways, here are a couple of ideas based on the U.K.
Around the U.K. there are hundreds, if not thousands, of dives completed every week. With the arrival of sports cameras to suit all budgets, there is a lot of footage being taken. It’s not all good but most could be edited down into short usable clips. Clips of a single dive site could be collated, they could then be used to create the basis for a program. Editing of potentially hundreds of clips sounds a nightmare, if you have a local university that teaches media studies, the students could be used to do the first edit. Reducing 40 minute videos into a clip that suits, it may just be a few seconds of genius or luck by the cameraman. A willing presenter can then talk to people at the dive site or on a boat near the dive site. The key to a good program will be in the final edit, which takes time. With the amount of footage available, it would be easy to make a 30 minute program for most sites. Due to programming styles, allowing for start and end titles and adverts, this is only two 11 minute segments. There will be more about programming later.
The U.K. has many stories and secrets to be unveiled. In 2016, I embarked on a quest to find the Darlwyne, a motor cruiser lost in 1966, with 31 people on board. The vessel was lost with no survivors. After some detective work, we knew the area to search. I found some remains of what we believe to be the Darlwyne, just one week before the fiftieth anniversary of the loss. The BBC filmed most of the process, interviewed relatives and others who remembered the event. It was then presented on TV, as a whole 30 minute episode of BBC’s Inside Out. The program shouldn’t have cost a lot to produce and was aired on BBC HD country wide. There are many stories like this, I am working on one right now with the BBC. It only takes a small team and a half decent story, to make a good and interesting program.
I have ideas of programs that have a wider interest but still contain diving. We have people we know who would make great presenters. We have a multi award winning and twice BAFTA nominated cameraman/editor/producer. We even have a local university that teaches media studies. I am sure we are not the only ones in the U.K., there are probably several in similar situations in every country.
A suggestion for the U.K. and a bit about programming.
In the U.K. and most of Europe, we have Sky TV. There is also Freeview in the U.K. and probably similar programming in Europe and the rest of the world. These broadcasting companies have many channels, some allow individuals to buy air time. Air time is not expensive for the smaller channels, these channels are watched by tens of thousands of people, including other channels. Other channels will then license programs it likes, to be shown on their channels, this can happen more than once.
The cost of airtime can be financed by a sponsor and advertisers. An advert can be as short as 15 seconds. So where is this going? Programming, it’s about financials around programming.
Air time on a lesser known Sky TV channel will cost roughly £1000 an hour. That hour gives you 9 minutes of advertising space to recover the costs. It will also appear on-line, to watch on-demand, after being shown. If we could make an inexpensive program, which certainly can be done, for say around £3000. A 15 second advert would need to be sold for under £120, slightly less if there is a program sponsor too. This would then break even. If the program was re-sold to another channel, then there would actually be a profit. It could even be sold to other countries. Most airtime suppliers would like a series, rather than a single program. So six programs would need to be made for a small series, although it does not have to be limited to any specific amount of programs. If done worldwide, by half the countries in the world, there would be 300 hours of diving on TV globally available, based on six 60 minute programs
. Create a new series each year, in each country, the choice would be expansive.
Any profit made by reselling, could be put into making more or better programs, or used to refund/credit advertisers.
The more diving gets seen, the more people will want to dive.